|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||1993|
|Authors:||Lumaret, J-P, Galante, E, Lumbreras, C, Mena, J, Bertrand, M, Bernal, JL, Cooper, JF, Kadiri, N, Crowe, D|
|Journal:||Journal of Applied Ecology|
|Keywords:||attraction, COLEOPTERA, diptera, Dung beetles, elimination, environmental risks., IVERMECTIN, persistence|
1. The effects and the persistence of a single injection of ivermectin (lvomecR) to steers, at the recommended dose rate of 200 yg kg-' body weight, were studied in spring field experiments (Spanish conditions). 2. Elimination of ivermectin by cattle (faecal route) was rapid (12 days), with a peak in day 5. The persistence of ivermectin in dropped dung was low under field conditions (<6 days). 3. The drug itself did not increase attraction of beetles to dung. The attraction of beetles to dung from treated animals increased after day 5 until day 17, beyond the time when ivermectin was available. The hypothesis made was that ivermectin modified the gut flora of treated cattle after the peak of elimination. Watering of pats did not influence results. 4. Ivermectin concentration in dung dropped on days 1and 10 post-treatment in- hibited the development of larvae of the dung-dwelling Diptera Neomyia cornicina. At the former concentration, it inhibited the development of the dung beetle Euoniticellus fulvus whereas, for the latter, a slight delay in development was observed. 5. The consequences of routine treatment of cattle with ivermectin on non-target organisms are discussed. The risks for the environment are different according to insect groups and countries, mainly due to differences in conditions of temperature and degradation of ivermectin.