|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2003|
|Authors:||V. H. Suarez, Lifschitz, A. L., Sallovitz, J. M., Lanusse, C. E.|
|Journal:||Journal of Applied Entomology|
|Keywords:||cattle-nematoda, doramectin, dung-fauna, environmental toxicity, faecal residues, IVERMECTIN|
The effects of avermectin [ivermectin (IVM) and doramectin (DRM)] faecal residues on dung colonization and degradation by invertebrates were evaluated during late spring in the east of La Pampa province, Argentina. The study was conducted after collection of faecal material from animals (10 steers per group) allocated to the following groups: untreated control group (CG) and groups treated subcutaneously (200 lg/kg) with either DRM (DG) or a long-acting formulation of IVM (IG). Fifty pats (550 g each) per group were collected, prepared and deposited on the field on days 3, 7, 16 and 29 post-treatment (pt). Eight pats per group were recovered after 7, 14, 21, 42, 100 and 180 days post-deposition (pd) on the field. The weight, percentage of dry matter, number of arthropods and nematodes from faeces were determined. The faecal concentrations of IVM and DRM were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) throughout the trial period to correlate the pattern of drug degradation in dung with pd time. The total number of arthropods in dungs from CG was higher (P < 0.05) than those counted between days 3 and 29 pt in IG and DG. A decrease in the number of Coleoptera larvae (P < 0.05) between days 21 and 42 days pd was observed in both treated groups. Diptera larvae counts in CG pats were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained in treated groups in the 7- and 14-day-old pats. A lower number (P < 0.05) of Collembola, compared with pats from CG, was recovered from IG and DG pats deposited at days 3 and 7 pt and exposed from day 42. The counts of Acari in pats from treated animals were lower (P < 0.05) than those observed in CG pats at 3, 8 and 16 days pt. There were no differences neither in adult Scarabaeidae recovered nor in the proportions of dung buried and destroyed by great dung beetles. Dung specific nematodes were reduced (P < 0.05) in IG and DG pats from 3 and 7 days pt compared with those of CG pats. The comparative results shown here demonstrate that the negative effects of both IVM and DRM on dung colonization are similar. The pattern of drug degradation in the environment was very slow. High residual concentrations of both active parent compounds were recovered in dungs exposed in the field for up to 180 days pd. Concentrations as high as 13 ng/g (IVM) and 101 ng/g (DRM) were measured in faeces obtained from pats deposited on day 27 pt and exposed to the environment during 180 days. The results show a decrease in invertebrate colonization of dung recovered from IVM- and DRM-treated cattle, which is in agreement with the large drug residual concentrations measured in faeces.