|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2004|
|Authors:||F. - J. Cabrero-Sanudo, Zardoya R.|
|Journal:||Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|
|Keywords:||Aphodiini, Combined analysis, Dung beetles, Iberian Peninsula, Phylogenetics, Radiation, Speciation rate tests|
A phylogeny of Iberian Aphodiini dung beetles was reconstructed based on morphological and molecular data. The data set included a total of 84 variable characters from wing venation, mouthparts, genitalia, and external morphology, as well as mito- chondrial partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), complete tRNA-Leu (UUR), and partial cytochrome c oxidase II (COII) gene nucleotide sequences (1210 positions). Phylogenetic trees based on molecular data were relatively more resolved than those based on morphological characters. The Bayesian analysis of combined molecular and morphological data provided resolution not achieved by each data set separately. Ammoecius and Aphodius are the first lineages that branch off from the tree, followed by Acrossus, Nimbus, and Heptaulacus. The remaining studied taxa are recovered in a more derived clade that lacks internal resolution. Re- constructed trees based on molecular data showed relatively short internal nodes that were weakly supported. Such pattern may reflect a rapid radiation at the origin of the tribe Aphodiini, but also saturation of mutational changes. Several tests were conducted to discern between both competing hypotheses, as well as to assess the effect of incomplete taxon sampling.