|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2005|
|Authors:||C. L. Sole, Scholtz, C. H., Bastos, A. D. S.|
|Journal:||Journal of Biogeography|
|Keywords:||Aptery, biogeography, COLEOPTERA, cytochrome oxidase I, endemic, mitochondrial DNA, namib desert, phylogeny, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeus (Pachysoma).|
Aim Namib biogeography in many instances remains reliant on advanced and detailed systematic studies. This study attempts to combine molecular phylogenetic data, geology and palaeo-climatic data to (i) resolve the relationships of the 13 morphological species of Scarabaeus (Pachysoma) and (ii) relate their evolution to past climatic and geological events. Location South Africa and Namibia. Methods Sequencing of a 1197 bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of the 13 species within Scarabaeus (Pachysoma) was undertaken. Analyses performed included Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood as well as imposing a molecular clock. Results The molecular phylogeny showed strong support for 11 of the 13 morphological species. The remaining two species, S. (P.) glentoni and S. (P.) hippocrates, formed a complex and could not be assigned specific status on the basis of the COI gene phylogeny. Strong support for the three species formerly classified within the genus Neopachysoma was consistently obtained. The subgenus appears to have arisen c. 2.9 Ma. Species within the subgenus arose at different times, with the common ancestor to Neopachysoma and the hippocrates complex having evolved 2.65 and 2.4 Ma, respectively. Scarabaeus (P.) denticollis, S. (P.) rotundigenus, S. (P.) rodriguesi and S. (P.) schinzi are some of the youngest species, having diverged between 2 million and 600,000 years ago. Main conclusions Scarabaeus (Pachysoma) is a derived monophyletic clade within the Scarabaeini. The subgenus appears to be young in comparison with the age of the Namib Desert, which dates back to the Miocene (c. 15 Ma). The psammophilous taxa are shown to disperse with their substratum and habitat, barchan dunes. Clear south/north evolutionary gradients can be seen within the species of this subgenus, which are consistent with the unidirectional wind regime. Species with a suite of mostly plesiomorphic characters have a southerly distribution while their derived psammophilous relatives have central to northern Namib distributions. Major rivers such as the Orange, Buffels and Holgat appear to be gene barriers to certain species as well as areas of origin of speciation events.